Thiamine (Vitamin B-1)
Thiamine (more commonly referred to as vitamin B-1) was previously known as the anti-beriberi factor, and is essential for carbohydrate metabolism as a coenzyme. Aerobic metabolism and the conduction of nerve impulses also involves vitamin B-1. Thiamine is unstable to heat, alkali, oxygen, and radiation. As a B-complex vitamin, thiamine is soluble in water and in the body, supplies are rapidly depleted, and must be replaced regularly. An overdose of vitamin B-1 (thiamine shock) is indicated by weakness, a burning sensation, nausea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, collapse, and even death.