Epithelial Cells: Confocal Microscopy Digital Image Gallery
The Olympus Microscopy Resource Center galleries include images of fluorescent specimens, as well as darkfield, phase contrast, and Hoffman modulation contrast photomicrographs. In addition, the gallery features streaming video and images from featured microscopists.
The CRFK feline kidney cell line was established by a team led by R. A. Crandell from the renal cortex of a 12-week-old female cat (Felis catus domesticus). The cells, which are often utilized in viral research and in the production of vaccines, exhibit typical epithelial morphology. Testing indicates that the CRFK line is free from the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus that was found to have contaminated major stocks of a large number of permanent cell lines. CRFK cells are susceptible, however, to the BVD virus, as well as an array of other viruses.
Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells have been used in scientific research for many years regardless of the controversy that surrounds them and other cell lines derived from human embryos. Many scientists that have exploited HEK cells have been exploring ways to utilize them to grow new kidneys in adults that have been diagnosed with renal failure, an undertaking that has been remarkably successful.
The OK cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult female North American opossum and was originally intended for use as a source of X chromosomes for studies of X inactivation. The line was soon discovered, however, to display many characteristics of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells and has since been commonly utilized as a cell culture model for the cell type.
The owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) is a nocturnal native of tropical South America that is known for its large, closely set eyes. The OMK epithelial cell line was established from kidney tissue excised from a member of the species.
The RK13 cell line is often employed in transfection experiments and to isolate viruses. The epithelial line was established from the renal tissue of a 5-week-old rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
LLC-MK2 is an epithelial line that was established in the 1950s from a pooled suspension prepared from renal tissue excised from six rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). LLC-MK2 cellular products include the protease plasminogen activator associated with the kidneys that normally instigates the process of fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen to plasmin. The LLC-MK2 line demonstrates susceptibility to polioviruses 1, 2, and 3 and tests negative for reverse transcriptase, indicating the lack of integral retrovirus genomes.
The MDOK cell line was established by S. H. Madin and N. B. Darby, Jr. from normal male ovine kidney tissue. Testing has demonstrated that the cells are susceptible to sheep bluetongue virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and the Indiana and New Jersey strains of vesicular stomatitis.
The PtK1 cell line is thought to have been established earlier than any other permanent marsupial cell line. The line, which is popular for use in chromosome studies, was developed in the early 1960s from the kidney tissue of an adult female rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis).
PtK2 cells are commonly utilized as a model of the mitotic process because the cells and the fourteen chromosomes they each contain are quite large compared to the chromosomes of humans and other animals. The line was established from renal tissue excised from a male Potorous tridactylus, popularly known as the rat kangaroo. PtK2 cells exhibit typical epithelial characteristics and stain positive for the keratin, an intermediate filament protein.
The GMMe cell line was initiated via the stable transfection of tissue excised from the endometrial layer of an adult mink's uterus. The plasmid vector utilized for the transfection encoded simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen). The cells were then cotransfected with another plasmid vector containing the gene for neomycin resistance and selected in a medium containing the antibiotic G418.
Y. Yasumura and Y. Kawakita at the Chiba University in Chiba, Japan established the Vero epithelial cell line in the early 1960s from the kidney tissue of an adult African green monkey. The cells are a standard cell line utilized in many laboratories, especially for vaccine production, transfections, and the detection of verotoxins. The Vero cell has been demonstrated to be resistant to a variety of viruses, including Apeu, Nepuyo, Caraparu, Stratford, Madrid, and Ossa viruses.
The Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), which is related to the wild goat, was the source for the HJ1.Ov cell line. Scientists at The Naval Bioscience Laboratory established the line from the ovarian tissue of a female member of the species. In culture, HJ1.Ov cells are morphologically similar to epithelial cells and typically exhibit adherent growth to glass and polymer surfaces.